Yilmaz's former economy minister Gunes Taner of the centre-right Motherland Party (ANAP) is also on trial following an investigation into the banking fraud. If found guilty both former ministers could serve ten years in prison.
The former prime minister is accused of rigging the 1998 privatization of state-run Turkbank. Yilmaz denies any knowledge that underworld figures were brought in to scare off other bidders for the bank, which is now in the process of being dissolved.
The outcome of the trial, which is expected to continue for months, will be final.