"Both sides believe that creating a global missile defense system, including deploying such systems in certain regions of the world, or plans for such cooperation, do not help support strategic balance and stability, and harm international efforts to control arms and the non-proliferation process," Russia and China said in a joint statement.
"It harms the strengthening of trust between states and regional stability. In this respect (the two sides) express their concern," it said.
The statement was signed in Beijing by Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, who is on a trip to China.
Washington's plans to deploy parts of its missile shield in eastern Europe to counter possible rocket launches by "rogue" states like Iran have unnerved Moscow which sees the project as a threat to Russia's security.